Modern financial system leverage

Leverage in modern financial systems arises from bank balance sheets and off-balance sheet transactions that involve banks and other financial institution. Non-bank funding of...

The consequences of increased financial collateralization

There has been a strong upward trend in collateralization since the great financial crisis. Suitable collateral, such as government bonds, is essential for financial...

How bank regulatory reform has changed macro trading

The great regulatory reform in global banking has altered the backdrop for macro trading. First, greater complexity and policymaker discretion means that investment managers...

Cash hoarding and market dynamics

Institutional asset managers can aggravate market swings due to the pro-cyclicality of redemptions, internal leverage and cash positions. A new empirical analysis shows that...

Volcker Rule and liquidity risk

The Volcker Rule has banned proprietary trading of banks with access to official backstops. Also, market making has become more onerous as restrictions and...

The macroeconomic impact of Basel III

The regulatory capital reform for banks increases capital costs and credit spreads charged on clients. However, it also clearly reduces the tail risk of...

The global debt overhang

A new IMF report illustrates that a large share of both advanced and emerging economies struggle with private debt overhangs. Excessive debt is a...

The threat from China’s shadow finance

In past years China witnessed a boom in shadow finance, particularly in form of entrusted loans. Banks apparently used shadow credit products in large...

The side-effects of non-conventional monetary policy

A BIS summary of research gives a nice overview on non-conventional monetary policies and their unintended systemic consequences. Current policies appear to yield diminishing returns in terms...

Climate change and systemic financial risk

The rise in global temperatures calls for a lower-carbon economy overtime. This poses systemic financial risk in two ways. First, large fossil-fuel reserves may...

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The importance of volatility of volatility

Options-implied volatility of U.S. equity prices is measured by the volatility index, VIX. Options-implied volatility of volatility is measured by the volatility-of-volatility index, VVIX....

Low rates troubles for insurances and pension funds

A CGFS report highlights the pressure of a ‘low for long’ interest rate environment on life insurance companies and defined-benefit pension funds. This pressure...

Seasonal effects in commodity futures curves

Seasonal fluctuations are evident for many commodity prices. However, their exact size can be quite uncertain. Hence, seasons affect commodity futures curves in two...

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