The price effects of order flow

Order flow means buyer- or seller-initiated transactions at electronic exchanges. Order flow consumes liquidity provided by market makers and drives a wedge between transacted...

Dealer capital ratios and FX carry returns

When financial market intermediaries warehouse net risk positions of other market participants the marginal value of their capital should affect the expected and actual...

The low-risk effect: evidence and reason

The low-risk effect refers to the empirical finding that within an asset classes higher-beta securities fail to outperform lower-beta securities. As a result, “betting...

The mighty “long-long” trade

One of the most successful investment strategies since the turn of the century has been the risk-parity “long-long” of combined equity, credit and duration...

Active fund risk premia in emerging markets

Security returns, adjusted for market risk, contain risk premia that compensate for the exposure to active fund risk. The active fund risk premium of...

The implicit subsidies behind simple trading rules

Implicit subsidies are premia paid by large financial markets participants for reasons other than risk-return optimization (view post here). Their estimation requires skill and...

Implicit subsidies paid in financial markets: updated primer

Implicit subsidies in financial markets are premia paid through transactions that have motives other than conventional risk-return optimization. They manifest as expected returns over...

How salience theory explains the mispricing of risk

Salience theory suggests that decision makers exaggerate the probability of extreme events if they are aware of their possibility. This gives rise to subjective...

Commodity carry

Across assets, carry is defined as return for unchanged prices and is calculated based on the difference between spot and futures prices (view post...

Understanding the correlation of equity and bond returns

The correlation of equity and high grade sovereign bond returns is a powerful driver of portfolio construction and the term premia of interest rates....

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The basics of low-risk strategies

Low-risk investment strategies prefer leveraged low-risk assets over high-risk assets. The measure of risk can be based on price statistics, such as volatility and...

How loss aversion increases market volatility and predicts returns

Loss aversion means that people are more sensitive to losses than to gains. This asymmetry is backed by ample experimental evidence. Loss aversion is...

Reward-risk timing

Reward-risk timing refers to methods for allocating between a risky market index and a risk-free asset. It is a combination of reward timing, based...

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