Understanding China’s “financial policy”

In most developed countries macroeconomic management is the domain of separate fiscal and monetary policies. In China, the focus is on “financial policy”, a...

ECB policy framework in six basic points

The European Central Bank is one of the most powerful institutions in the world and is running a particularly complex policy framework. For macro...

How systemic financial risk is measured

Public institutions have developed a wide range of methods to track systemic financial risk. What most of them have in common is reliance on...

How convenience yields have compressed real interest rates

Real interest rates on ‘safe’ assets such as high-quality government bonds had been stationary around 2% for more than a century until the 1980s....

How regulatory reform shapes the financial cycle

Ambitious regulatory reform has changed the dynamics of the global financial system. Capital ratios of banks have increased significantly, reining in bank credit. Counter-cyclical...

Predicting equity volatility with return dispersion

Equity return dispersion is measured as the standard deviation of returns across different stocks or portfolios. Unlike volatility it can be measured even for...

Low rates troubles for insurances and pension funds

A CGFS report highlights the pressure of a ‘low for long’ interest rate environment on life insurance companies and defined-benefit pension funds. This pressure...

Update on the great public debt issue

The latest IMF fiscal monitor is a stark reminder of the public finance risks in the world. Public debt ratios have remained stuck near...

How to prepare for the next systemic crisis

Systemic crises are rare. But they are make-or-break events for long-term performance and social relevance of investment managers. In systemic crises conventional investment strategies...

Modern financial system leverage

Leverage in modern financial systems arises from bank balance sheets and off-balance sheet transactions that involve banks and other financial institution. Non-bank funding of...

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Signaling systemic risk

Systemic financial crises arise when vulnerable financial systems meet adverse shocks. A systemic risk indicator tracks the vulnerability rather than the shocks (which are...

How to estimate risk in extreme market situations

Estimating portfolio risk in extreme situations means answering two questions: First, has the market entered an extreme state? Second, how are returns likely to...

The dollar as barometer for credit market risk

The external value of the USD has become a key factor of U.S. and global credit conditions. This reflects the surge in global USD-denominated...

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